Containers Aren't Linux Processes

There are many ways to create containers, especially on Linux and alike. Besides the super widespread Docker implementation, you may have heard about LXC, systemd-nspawn, or maybe even OpenVZ.

The general concept of the container is quite vague. What's true and what's not often depends on the context, but the context itself isn't always given explicitly. For instance, there is a common saying that containers are Linux processes or that containers aren't Virtual Machines. However, the first statement is just an oversimplified attempt to explain Linux containers. And the second statement simply isn't always true.

In this article, I'm not trying to review all possible ways of creating containers. Instead, the article is an analysis of the OCI Runtime Specification. The spec turned out to be an insightful read! For instance, it gives a definition of the standard container (and no, it's not a process) and sheds some light on when Virtual Machines can be considered containers.

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From Docker Container to Bootable Linux Disk Image

Well, I don't see any practical applications of the approach I'm going to describe... However, I do think that messing about with things like this is the only way to gain extra knowledge of any system internals. We are going to speak Docker and Linux here. What if we want to take a base Docker image, I mean really base, just an image made with a single line Dockerfile like FROM debian:latest, and convert it to something launchable on a real or virtual machine? In other words, can we create a disk image having exactly the same Linux userland a running container has and then boot from it? For this we would start with dumping container's root file system, luckily it's as simple as just running docker export, however, to finally accomplish the task a bunch of additional steps is needed...

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